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김사모 2013-03-21 15:15:02
제 목 7. 집단과 커뮤니케이션
7. 집단과 커뮤니케이션
  
   인간은 사회적 동물
  
   우리의 지각과 태도, 행위는 다른 사람에 의해 큰 영향을 받는다.

   우리에게 영향을 미치는 다른 사람들은 그 영향력이 크든 작든, 공식적이든 비공식적이든 우리
   와 같은 집단에 소속해 있다.
    집단은 우리가 매스커뮤니케이션 메시지를 수용하는 방식에 커다란 영향을 주고 있다.
    집단에 대한 소속감은 변하지 않는 편견적 태도를 형성할 수 있다 (쿠퍼와 제호다 Cooper, Jeho
    da 의 연구)
     집단은 여러 방식으로 인간의 커뮤니케이션 행위에 영향을 미친다.

    1) 집단의 유형
      가) 일차 집단 (Primary Group)
          (2명 혹은 그 이상의 사람들이) 오랫동안 지속되며 친밀한 관계속에서 맞대면의 커뮤니케이
        션을 갖는 집단. 가족, 직장, 팀, 학생회, 군대 조직 등
      나) 준거 집단 (Reference Group)
         그 집단에 반드시 소속되지 않더라도 나와 동일시하며 가치나 행동등의 준거기준이 되는 집
          단. 한 학생이 특정 단체에 소속되길 희망하면서, 비록 그 집단의 소속원이 아니더라도 그
          집단의 구성원처럼 옷을 입고, 그들과 같은 태도를 취하는 경우
      다) 임시 집단 (Casual Group)
          만나기 전까지는 상대방을 서로 모르는 사람들의 일회적 집단. 승강기나 버스에 동승한 사
          람들, 축구 경기장에 함께 앉아 있는 낯선 사람들.

      2) 집단 규범
         집단은 일반적으로 어떤 규칙이나 기준을 공유하고 있으며 이를 규범(Norm) 이라고 한다.
         규범은 인간 행위의 거의 모든 영역에서 작동하고 있다.
         머리 모양, 스커트 길이, 대중 음악 취향, 인사 방식, 악수 형태등 매우 다양하다.
         개인은 집단속에서 이미 형성했던 규범을 유지하는 것으로 나타났다.
         불확실한 상황에서 사람들은 지침(Guidance)를 위해 다른 사람에게 의존한다.
         집단의 영향력은 집단이 존재하지 않은 개별적인 상황에 까지 확장되어 남아있음을 보여준
         다.
         수많은 상황는 불확실성으로 가득 차 있다. 집단 규범은 여러 불확실한 영역에서 인간의 태
         도에 많은 영향을 미친다.

         -> 사람들은 자신의 생각과 상충되는 정보라 할지라도 집단의 압력에 따라가는 경향이 있다.
          특히 집단 압력은 정치와 행정의 의사 결정 과정에서 강한 영향력을 보이는 것으로 나타났
          다.
          집단의 영향력이 서로 알지 못하는 사람들로 구성된 임시 집단에서 강한 영향력을 행사하
          고 있음을 보여주고 있다. 따라서 가족 혹은 직장과 같은 1차 집단의 경우는 이보다 훨씬 큰
          집단 영향력이 나타날 수 있을 것이다.

          3) 집단과 정치적 태도
            선거에서 유권자들이 어떤 후보에게 투표할 것인지를 어떻게 결정하는가에 대해 연구 시
            작 (1940년대)

             오하이오주 에리 카운티 (Erie County)의 유권자 조사 연구
             뉴욕주 엘미라( Elmira)의 유권자 조사 연구  

            두 연구는 유권자의 투표의사 결정과정에 매스미디어가 얼마나 중요한 영향을 미치는지
            에 대해 초점을 둠.
            
            -> 개인적인 영향력 또는 다른 사람들의 영향력과 비교해볼 때 매스미디어의 영향력은 매
            우 미미하다는, 당시로서는 파격적인 연구 결과가 나옴.

             일차 집단, 특히 가정의 구성원들과 동일한 방식으로 투표하는 경향이 강한것으로 드러
             남. 특히 엘미라 지역의 경우 유권자의 75%가 그들 아버지와 똑같은 방식으로 투표한 것
             으로 나타남.

             또한 유권자들은 친구와 직장 동료들과 같은 방식으로 투표하는 경향이 강한 것으로 나타
            남.

             일차 집단의 정치적 동질성 이라고 명명함- ( 베럴슨, 라자스펠드와 맥피)

              집단은 개인의 판단에 압력을 행사하고 영향을 미친다.
             사람들은 자신과 정치적 태도가 비슷한 사람을 친구로 선택한다.
             사람들은 친구를 고를 때는 많은 선택을 할 수 있지만 직장 동료를 고르는 데는 거의 선택
             권이 없고 더 나아가 가족 구성원에 대해서는 선택의 자유란 전혀 없다.

            4) 결론

              집단은 여러가지 방식으로 매스 커뮤니케이션에 영향을 미친다.

             가) 집단은 태도를 고착화하고 변하지 않도록 하는 데 기여한다.
             나) 한 개인이 동일시하는 집단에 대한 지식은 그 사람의 행위를 예측하는 데 도움이 될
              수 있다. 특히 정치적 선호도를 파악하는 데서는 더욱 효과적.
             다) 커뮤니케이션의 효과적인 프로그램은 매스 커뮤니케이션과 대인 커뮤니케이션을 조
              합시켜 수행하는 것이다. - 자선 기금 마련 운동, 선거 캠페인, 금연 돕기 프로그
              램..
             라) 때때로 매스커뮤니케이션을 통해서 대인 커뮤니케이션이 갖는 몇 가지 장점들을 얻
              을 수 있는 방법이 발견된다. - 선거 후보자가 시청자들이 전화로 걸려온 질문에 답하는
              텔레비전 프로 그램, 미국의 경우 대통령의 대국민 기자회견에서도 같은 방식 이용.

          

8. 매스미디어와 대인 커뮤니케이션

       제 1, 2차 세계 대전이 있었던 수 십년의 기간은 매스미디어의 막강한 힘에 대해 무한한 관심
       과 두려움을 목격한 시기.

       1920년대: 많은 사람들은 제 1차 세계대전 기간에 선전이 얼마나 광범위하고 효과적으로 활용
                    되었는지 인식할 수 있었다.
       1930년대: 라디오가 거대한 수용자들에게 연설 도구로 사용되는 빈도가 급격히 증가하는 것
                    을 목격함.
                   1938년 라디오에서 <세계의 전쟁 War of the Worlds, 화성인의 침입>이라는 프로그
                    램을 내 보내자 미국의 여러 지역에서 공포를 야기했다.
                    유럽에서는 히틀러가 세계정복을 위해 라디오를 매우 다른 방법으로 지속적이며 위
                    험하게 이용했다.

        1940년대: 유럽과 아시아에서 전쟁이 발발한 시기.
                  루스벨트 대통령은 미국 역사에서 전례가 없는 삼선 출마를 발표했다.
                  -> 사회과학자들은 개인에 침투하는 미디어의 직접적이고도 일방향적인 영향력을 우
                  려하기 시작함.
      
         1940년 에리지역 유권자 연구는 투표결정에 영향을 미치는 매스 미디어의 막강한 힘을 증명
         하기 위해 설계됐다.

         @ 그러나 연구 결과는 개인간의 접촉이 매스미디어보다 더 빈번하게 일어나고, 투표 결정
          에 더 효과적인 것으로 나타났다.
          연구자들은, 미디어의 메시지는 여론 지도자(Opinion Leader) 에게 처음 전달되고, 이들은
          자신을 영향력있는 사람으로 여기는 동료나 추종자들에게 미디어를 통해 읽거나 들은 내용
          을 전달한다고 주장했다. => 커뮤니케이션의 2단계 흐름 (Two-step Flow)

         1940년 투표연구의 결론 (Katz, 1957)
         (1) 캠페인 후반에 투표행위를 결정한 사람들이나 캠페인 기간 동안 마음을 바꾼 사람들은
           다른 사람들 보다 결정을 내리는 데 대인적인 영향을 더 많이 받은 것 같다.
          (2) 여론 지도자들은 모든 사회 계층에서 발견되며, 여론 지도자와 그로부터 영향을 받는 사
           람들은 매우 유사한 성향을 보이는 것으로 추정된다.
          (3) 여론 지도자들은 다른 사람들보다 매스미디어에 더 많이 노출되는 것으로 밝혀졌다.

       1) 의사 결정에서 공동체의 역할
         가) 여론 지도력에 대한 발견들
            (1) 개인적 영향력 (Personal Influence)은 어떠한 매스미디어보다 더 빈번하고 효과적인
              데, 이는 정치분야뿐 아니라 상품 구매, 유행의 결정, 영화 관람에서도 마찬가지다.
            (2) 일차 집단에서의 대인 영향력(Interpersonal Influence)은 의견과 행동에서 높은 동질
              성을 유지하는 데 효과적이다.
               의사들은 동료의사들이 처방하는 동일한 약으로 치료하는 경향이 있었다. 어려운 병을
              치료할 때 더욱 그러했다.
            (3) 의사결정 과정에서 상이한 미디어는 각기 다른 역할을 수행한다. 어떤 미디어는 정보
              를 제공하거나 어떤 사실의 존재를 알려주는 데 반해, 다른 미디어는 주어진 행위과정을
              합법화시키거나 수용할 수 있도록 만든다.

          누가 이끌고 누가 따르는가는 상당 부분 그때 그때의 사안에 따라 결정된다.
        
           - 시장에서 물건을 살 경우에는 장년의 여성계층이 여론 지도력을 이끈다.
           - 유행이나 영화 관람에는 젊은 미혼 여성이 여론지도자인 경우가 가장 많았다.
           - 사람들은 자신과 비슷한 사람들과 자주 대화를 나눈다.

          지도자와 추종자를 구분하는 요인들
           - 가치의 의인화 (그는 누구인가?)
           - 능력 (그가 무엇을 아는가?)
           - 전략적인 시회적 위치 (그가 누구를 아는가?)

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